adminComment(0) Genius Foods Max Lugavere. is the starting point to a world of exciting cartoon animation. Learn & Enjoy CARTOON. ANIMATION by PRESTON BLAIR. LEARN. HOW TO DRAW. ANIMATED. CARTOONS. PUBLISHED BY WALTER T. FOSTER. Preston Blair - Cartoon Animation - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.

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action" section is a big help in creating attitudes in posture and. Inovement. This chapter is the starting point to a world of exciting cartoon animation. FOSTER. LEARN HOW TO DRAW ANIMATED CARTOONS Preston Blair, Cartoon Director, is one of the fine artists of Animation. Associated with the Disney. Cartoons. • Produced in large numbers in the Golden Age of. Hollywood; usually shown before feature films. • First animated full length film: Snow White,

In this Above and Beyond exercise you need to take one of your characters and draw one of the emotions you see in the photographs in this chapter. See if you can get your character to duplicate the emotion as closely as possible. This book will deal with depicting emotion in both 2D animation and 3D animation.

What changes are the methods used to create the emotion.

Preston Blair - Cartoon Animation.pdf

This book will focus on not only emotion but also give examples of how to develop that emotion using a variety of 2D and 3D techniques. It is more important for you to capture the emotion.

Once you have a good feel for a particular emotion, you will be better able to exaggerate it because you will understand the important signs of that emotion. Software Because so much of animation is done on the computer today, many of the examples and techniques shown in this book will use specialized software for examples and exercises. The CD includes links to trial versions of the software used in this book so you can experiment and follow along with the exercises and examples.

The software is primarily trial versions to give you an idea of how they work. Later if you decide to continue your study of emotion in animation you may choose to download the software.

Following is a quick overview of the software used in this book. Poser comes with a huge variety of tools for creating full body animation, including facial animation. It is a very powerful program and not that hard to understand once you get familiar with it.

I will go through the basics with you so you can come up to speed quickly. Poser is a great program for exploring 3D character animation without having to create the 3D model. Poser comes with several professionally created 3D models and includes a large wardrobe of costumes and props that you can add to your animation. I am sure you will enjoy working with it.

Character Emotion in 2D and 3D Animation

Emotion in Life Maya PLE Maya is a full feature 3D program used for development of professional-quality graphics in motion pictures and video games. It is one of the most powerful 3D programs available on the market today. A link to the full feature personal learning edition is included on the CD accompanying this book.

The personal learning edition does not have a trial period but rather lets the user work with the software for as long as needed for personal learning but their files are incompatible with the commercial version.

It adds a watermark to the images to indicate that they are for personal use only. Learning to develop emotion in 3D characters requires that you learn how to create the characters so they can be animated for emotion.

This book will cover how to set up your models so they can be animated with emotion. In other words, it simulates working with traditional media like pencil, chalk, watercolor, oil paint, and many others. It also has a very useful animation feature that simulates tracing paper levels and allows you to see levels of animation from frame to frame.

I am sure you will enjoy this program and find it useful for a number of tasks beyond just animation. FlipBook FlipBook is a very useful 2D animation program used for creating 2D animations on the computer.

With FlipBook you will be able to create your own 2D animated movies. It includes a number of features that make it very useful, like the ability to have multiple levels of animation, X sheets, ink and paint, and camera movements. These programs should give you a very good start in creating your own wonderfully emotional animations. It is designed to be informative and useful to you the reader. To get the most out of the book, you will need to follow the exercise instruc- tions and also follow along with the many project activities in the book.

I have found that one of the best ways to learn a concept in animation is to practice it. Therefore, I have included several step-by-step projects in the book for you to use to help you learn about creating emotion in your characters. It includes things like hand gestures, posture, facial expressions, and motion patterns. We use body language in our communication every day. Body language is the first language we learn as a child. Most children can tell if mommy is happy or sad even before they learn the meaning of those words.

As we grow older, we refine our skills in body language. We learn how to tell if someone is bored or excited. We learn how to tell when someone is listening to us or ignoring us. We learn how to tell if someone likes us or dislikes us. For example, if you are meeting someone for the first time, you will probably gather more information about that person through body language than you will through conversation. You will no doubt notice whether or not the person is interested in you by the way he looks at you and the way he stands.

Have you ever met someone and immediately liked or disliked him for some reason? You could probably tell if he was genuine or false. There might have been something about him that just made you feel creepy. Acting Fluency In many ways, acting is the study of body language.

The performer has to do much more than memorize lines. The actor has to convey the message of the part through the body language he employs. Seldom is an actor said to be a good actor or a bad actor because he missed a line. Usually the body language distinguishes a great actor from a poor actor.

If you think about some of the greatest performances you have witnessed, there is a good chance that it was the way the actor acted the part more than the words said that made the performance wonderful. Like the actor on stage, you need to have a great understanding of body language. Because body language is so important to animation, it goes hand in hand that you have to understand body language on a conscious level. Most people use body language without thinking about it. If you have ever seen someone waving his arms while talking or tapping his feet while waiting, you have witnessed body language.

Nevertheless, just like the writer who has to understand grammar rules to communicate, you, the animator, have to understand how body language works.

If you want to become an animator, body language has to become your language. You have to become as fluent with body language as you are with spoken language.

As an animator, you are an actor. Rather than performing live or in front of a camera, you perform through drawings. Your characters do the performance, but you are the one who creates that performance one frame at a time. Animators arguably use body language more in their work than any other performer.

Some animated productions are completely enacted through character actions. In these types of productions where everything relies on the actions of the characters, you have to be fluent in body language. Hopefully you have several pages of sketches of people expressing emotions in their dayto-day lives. In this chapter, you will begin to translate your study of emotion into your animations.

We will be starting with large movements and working our way down to smaller and more subtle ones. Before we get started, we need a tool to work with to help give you an organized way to develop your animation skills. Figure 2. One of the best tools for exploring body language that I have found is a software program called Poser from eFrontier, shown in Figure 2. A link to a demo version of the software is included on the CD with this book so you can use it right away.

A link to a demo version of that software is also included on the CD. Figure Artist is specifically designed for virtual model reference. Poser, on the other hand, is a more powerful application designed for posing and animating human characters. Either program is useful for studying body language, but for some of the more advanced aspects of animation, Poser is the better choice.

Both programs allow you to load, edit, and save poses and animations. They also come with a library of poses you can use right away.

Can you tell anything about the model by his pose? The model is standing in a thoughtful pose. The arm across his chest is a signal to leave him alone while he is thinking. The hand on his chin is an indication that he is deep in thought.

This pose goes beyond confident and into the realm of super confident. His arms are open and ready for action. He is looking straight ahead as if to say he is ready for anything. These two examples show some of the possibilities of working with a program like Poser or Figure Artist.

In this next section, I will go over the basics of how to use Figure Artist. NOTE The advantage these two programs give you is that they come with well-constructed 3D models that are already set up for animation. Later in the book, I will show you how to build and set up characters for animation similar to the characters in Figure Artist and Poser. For now, all you need to worry about is how to animate the characters that come with the program. Your first step is to find and install the demo version of Figure Artist on your computer.

Graphics programs on computers are memory hogs and take a lot of system memory.

Some Cartoon Animation Basics - Flash

The screen is divided into two major parts. The left-hand side of the screen is your document area or stage and the right-hand side contains rooms. The document area is where you set up poses and animation. The rooms give you access to figures, objects, accessories, props, and other elements that you can include in your scene. The program will launch with a figure model, James, already loaded.

James is the figure that we will be working with for now. Stage There are other figure models in the library that you can explore and work with also. If you look toward the bottom of the screen on the left-hand side, you will notice some tools that can be used for animating the figure model in the work area.

These tools are used for posing the figure, setting up the scene, and changing the lighting, and are similar in both Poser and Figure Artist. Rooms Install the Figure Artist trial version. Once you are ready, bring up the software and we will begin. Instead, I will give you a brief overview and get you started with the program.

It can be used to change the intensity and placement of the lights in the scene. The dials on the right side of the left half of the screen are the parameter dials, shown in Figure 2. These dials are used for fine adjustments of the model. You can see the name of each dial if you rest the cursor over it. The set of icons in the lower center of the left side are manipulation tools and are shown in Figure 2. They are used for scaling, rotating, and moving elements on stage.

In the drop-down menu just above the parameter dials, select James Casual. James Casual is the name of the model we are using. When you select it from the dropdown menu, you are selecting the entire model rather than just one part of it.

When you select James Casual, you will notice that the parameter dials change. Every selection has its own set of dials. In this case, you are selecting the entire model. This means that any adjustments of parameters will affect the entire model rather than just one part of 18 the model.

Make sure the bottomleft edit tool, ztran, is selected. It is the one that looks like a plus sign with an arrow on each end. If you click on the dial and move the cursor to the left or right, you will see the model move toward you and away from you. Move your model away from you until it is about the size shown in Figure 2.

The other two dials will move the model from side to side and up and down on the stage. You may notice a set of coordinates next to each dial. These coordinates indicate where the model is in relation to its default position. When you moved the model back, the number next to ztran changed.

If you want to move your model a specific distance, you can type the number directly into the coordinate system. The Rotate Edit tool is located just above the Move tool. Select the Rotate tool. Notice that the dials change when you change the tool.

Each edit tool will have its own set of dials, depending on what you have selected on the model. Some parts of the model like the shoulder joints only rotate and do not move. Body Language Figure 2. Try rotating the model so you are seeing him from the side, as shown in Figure 2. With the Rotate tool, you are changing the position of the model. You can also change the view by selecting the camera instead of the model.

If you rotate or translate the camera, you are moving around the model rather than moving the model. This is an important distinction. When you move the model, you are moving it in 3D space. When you move a camera, you are changing the view and the model does not move in 3D space.

Go to the main menu and select File, New to reset the model to its original position.

You can select the parts of the body you want to move right from the model. Move your cursor over the model. You will notice that parts of the model are outlined as you scroll over them. One is to select the body part from the list like you did when you selected James Casual.

The other way is to click on the body part on the model. When selecting parts of the body, I prefer to just click on the body part.

The program will only let you choose one body part at a time. You will notice that the parameter dials change to Twist, Front-Back, and Bend. We will be using the Bend parameter to raise the arm. See, that was fairly easy. You can play around with the model and move different legs and arms if you like. Just select a limb and use the dials. Using a Library Figure 2.

Figure Artist comes with a selection of poses in several libraries. Often if I am looking for a specific pose, I will browse their libraries and find a pose that is close to what I need. I find it easier to start with a pose that is close to what I want rather than always starting from the new scene spread pose.

If you look at Figure 2. You can find these folders by clicking on the up arrow folder. The folder will open up to look like Figure 2. The model assumes the chosen pose. What I want to do is change the pose so his right hand is resting on his hip.

Adjust the shoulders as well to make the pose look more natural, as shown in Figure 2. With it you can work on just about any pose you want and refine it until it is exactly how you want it.

Each pose you create can be a reference for developing your key frames. Key frames are key positions during an animation that are at the extremes of a movement. The nice aspect of exploring key frames using Figure Artist is that once you have the model in the exact right position, you can view him from any angle.

Some general characteristics of anger are as follows: Anger One of the most powerful emotions that an animator has to depict in a character is anger, as shown in Figure 2.

Anger is also one of the easiest emotions for the audience to interpret. Anger is indicated by a stiff gesture, with many muscles straining against one another. The Emotional Body Our emotions are often expressed through our body language. Close observation will show that there are unique characteristics to almost any emotion. When we react to an emotion, our reaction takes on these characteristics.

While not every reaction will be the same, there will be similarities. As you explore the characteristics of each emotional reaction, you will start to notice that there is a flow or overall directional movement. This is very important to notice because the major flow of the body is the most likely aspect of body language for exaggeration, which we will get into in Chapter 4. It is used often because it involves a lot of drama and has an impact on the audience.

Surprise is an open gesture that recedes from the object of the surprise. It is characterized by a very strong curve in the character, as shown in Figure 2. Happy Joy Joy is a happy expression of gleeful contentment, as shown in Figure 2. It is a strong contrasting emotion from anger and dejection.

It is a sweeping gesture that pulls the eye upward from the feet to the head, as shown in Figure 2. However, this could be confused with the action of pleading. This type of stance is filled with pride and arrogance. Sadness, as shown in Figure 2. It resonates with the audience because it is a common emotion that promotes sympathy for the sad character. The general action line of a sad character is hooked, or bent at the top, with the head down-turned, as shown in Figure 2.

This book is not long enough to list every emotion and its general characteristics. In order to cover the ones discussed here, I have had to generalize a great deal.

The preceding examples are meant as an example only and are certainly not the only way that a Figure 2. We have so many ways to express emotions that there are no hard and fast rules. Again, your best aid in understanding emotions is to observe natural reactions in real life. In the next chapter we will take a closer look at the full range of action in an emotional reaction. Thus far we have isolated a moment in time, which would be fine if this book was about illustration, but animation is about movement.

In this chapter, we will explore the range of motion that describes an emotional transition. At this point I only want you to look at the large body movements and not at facial expressions.

We will cover facial expressions in Chapter 5. Because of this I will be using a simple character for animation examples. Let me introduce him to you.

His name is Woody, and he is shown in Figure 3. States and Reactions Emotions in animation are shown in basically two ways: emotional reactions and emotional states. An emotional reaction is a short display of emotion, whereas an emotional state can last for a long period of time. Some emotions like happy, sad, shy, and content are more likely to be emotional states. Emotions like surprise, shock, stun, and chagrin are more likely to be reactions.

In this chapter we will be dealing with transitions between emotions. These transitions are the points where the character is moving from one emotion to another. Changes between emotional states can be slow and gradual or they can be abrupt, whereas emotional reactions are almost always abrupt. Animating Reactions An emotional reaction, no matter what it is, can be broken into several component parts, as shown in Figure 3. These parts are anticipation, building, key reaction, and let down.

Woody is a virtual wooden mannequin model found in both Figure Artist and Poser. He is much like the wooden mannequins you can find in many art supply stores. He is ideal for examples in this chapter because as you can see, his face has no features. Figure 3.

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Crudely put, there is a pervasive sense that we need to know what animation is so that we can know what a movie is. Because the revived interest in animation has largely been provoked by digitization, questions of animation tend to be asked in what we might call digital terms.

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In these terms one can argue, as Rosalind Krauss has, that because computers have "overtaken photographically based cinema," the distinction between "'movies' and 'cartoons'" has all but collapsed "The Rock" Conversely, one can follow Rodowick and Mary Ann Doane in claiming that cartoons, as drawings on celluloid sheets that had to be photographed, fall into the older regime of indexically based cinema Rodowick, Virtual Life ; Doane Either way the terms remain more or less the same, based on a presupposed opposition between old and new modes of representation.

A subtle but widespread problem with this line of thinking is that animation effectively gets collapsed into one category or the other, a kind of passenger in the larger vehicle of film history. It becomes easy to forget that animation itself has a history because it is not thought to be a historically variable form of its own—only an existing option for film technology, a possible counterexample.

Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Basic Skills How to Draw [Read] online 1.It is a constant creative process-at least at the important studios-especially on features, The storyman has to know staging and drama, he has to figure out and anticipate what the audience is thinking and then surprise, amuse, or spellbind the viewer.

Watch your brow. Never move a character without meaning. It can be about many different aspects of a scene, like contrast in color, complexity, and motion.

The dramatics of the scene can be heightened by following the witch with truck movements from her entrance to the hurtling up the street to scream at the viewer.

You can also change the view by selecting the camera instead of the model. An extreme close-up of a clenched fist might show frustration. At the point of impact, shown in Figure 4. Good animators retain the same spirit of fun and simplicity of the flip book in their work.